7.4. Pydantic Types Custom

  • FilePath - like Path, but the path must exist and be a file

  • DirectoryPath - like Path, but the path must exist and be a directory

  • PastDate - like date, but the date should be in the past

  • FutureDate - like date, but the date should be in the future

  • EmailStr - the input string must be a valid email address, and the output is a simple string

  • NameEmail - the input string must be either a valid email address or in the format Fred Bloggs <fred.bloggs@example.com>, and the output is a NameEmail object which has two properties: name and email.

  • PyObject - expects a string and loads the python object importable at that dotted path; e.g. if 'math.cos' was provided, the resulting field value would be the function cos

  • Color - for parsing HTML and CSS colors

  • Json - a special type wrapper which loads JSON before parsing

  • PaymentCardNumber - for parsing and validating payment cards

  • AnyUrl - any URL

  • AnyHttpUrl - an HTTP URL

  • HttpUrl - a stricter HTTP URL

  • FileUrl - a file path URL

  • PostgresDsn - a postgres DSN style URL

  • RabbitMqDsn - an AMQP DSN style URL as used by RabbitMQ, StormMQ, ActiveMQ etc.

  • RedisDsn - a redis DSN style URL

  • stricturl - a type method for arbitrary URL constraints

  • UUID1 - requires a valid UUID of type 1

  • UUID3 - requires a valid UUID of type 3

  • UUID4 - requires a valid UUID of type 4

  • UUID5 - requires a valid UUID of type 5

  • SecretBytes - bytes where the value is kept partially secret

  • SecretStr - string where the value is kept partially secret

  • IPvAnyAddress - allows either an IPv4Address or an IPv6Address

  • IPvAnyInterface - allows either an IPv4Interface or an IPv6Interface

  • IPvAnyNetwork - allows either an IPv4Network or an IPv6Network

  • NegativeFloat - allows a float which is negative; uses standard float parsing then checks the value is less than 0

  • NegativeInt - allows an int which is negative; uses standard int parsing then checks the value is less than 0

  • PositiveFloat - allows a float which is positive; uses standard float parsing then checks the value is greater than 0

  • PositiveInt - allows an int which is positive; uses standard int parsing then checks the value is greater than 0

If no existing type suits your purpose you can also implement your own pydantic-compatible types with custom properties and validation.

7.4.1. Email Types

EmailStr

requires email-validator to be installed; the input string must be a valid email address, and the output is a simple string

NameEmail

requires email-validator to be installed; the input string must be either a valid email address or in the format Fred Bloggs <fred.bloggs@example.com>, and the output is a NameEmail object which has two properties: name and email. For Fred Bloggs <fred.bloggs@example.com> the name would be "Fred Bloggs"; for fred.bloggs@example.com it would be "fred.bloggs".

7.4.2. URL Fields

For URI/URL validation the following types are available:

  • AnyUrl: any scheme allowed, TLD not required, host required

  • AnyHttpUrl: scheme http or https, TLD not required, host required

  • HttpUrl: scheme http or https, TLD required, host required, max length 2083

  • FileUrl: scheme file, host not required

  • PostgresDsn: scheme postgres, postgresql, user info required, TLD not required, host required. Also, its supported DBAPI dialects:

    • postgresql+asyncpg

    • postgresql+pg8000

    • postgresql+psycopg2

    • postgresql+psycopg2cffi

    • postgresql+py-postgresql

    • postgresql+pygresql

  • AmqpDsn: schema amqp or amqps, user info not required, TLD not required, host not required

  • RedisDsn: scheme redis or rediss, user info not required, tld not required, host not required (CHANGED: user info not required from v1.6 onwards), user info may be passed without user part (e.g., rediss://:pass@localhost)

  • stricturl: method with the following keyword arguments:

    • strip_whitespace: bool = True

    • min_length: int = 1

    • max_length: int = 2 ** 16

    • tld_required: bool = True

    • host_required: bool = True

    • allowed_schemes: Set[str] | None = None

The above types (which all inherit from AnyUrl) will attempt to give descriptive errors when invalid URLs are provided:

If you require a custom URI/URL type, it can be created in a similar way to the types defined above.

7.4.3. URL Properties

Assuming an input URL of http://samuel:pass@example.com:8000/the/path/?query=here#fragment=is;this=bit, the above types export the following properties:

  • scheme: always set - the url scheme (http above)

  • host: always set - the url host (example.com above)

  • host_type: always set - describes the type of host, either:

    • domain: e.g. example.com,

    • int_domain: international domain, see `international-domains>`_, e.g. exampl£e.org,

    • ipv4: an IP V4 address, e.g. 127.0.0.1, or

    • ipv6: an IP V6 address, e.g. 2001:db8:ff00:42

  • user: optional - the username if included (samuel above)

  • password: optional - the password if included (pass above)

  • tld: optional - the top level domain (com above), Note: this will be wrong for any two-level domain, e.g. "co.uk". You'll need to implement your own list of TLDs if you require full TLD validation

  • port: optional - the port (8000 above)

  • path: optional - the path (/the/path/ above)

  • query: optional - the URL query (aka GET arguments or "search string") (query=here above)

  • fragment: optional - the fragment (fragment=is;this=bit above)

If further validation is required, these properties can be used by validators to enforce specific behaviour:

7.4.4. International Domains

"International domains" (e.g. a URL where the host or TLD includes non-ascii characters) will be encoded via punycode (see this article for a good description of why this is important):

Warning

Underscores in Hostnames In pydantic underscores are allowed in all parts of a domain except the tld. Technically this might be wrong - in theory the hostname cannot have underscores, but subdomains can.

To explain this; consider the following two cases:

  • exam_ple.co.uk: the hostname is exam_ple, which should not be allowed since it contains an underscore

  • foo_bar.example.com the hostname is example, which should be allowed since the underscore is in the subdomain

Without having an exhaustive list of TLDs, it would be impossible to differentiate between these two. Therefore underscores are allowed, but you can always do further validation in a validator if desired.

Also, Chrome, Firefox, and Safari all currently accept http://exam_ple.com as a URL, so we're in good (or at least big) company.

7.4.5. Color Type

You can use the Color data type for storing colors as per CSS3 specification. Colors can be defined via:

  • name (e.g. "Black", "azure")

  • hexadecimal value (e.g. "0x000", "#FFFFFF", "7fffd4")

  • RGB/RGBA tuples (e.g. (255, 255, 255), (255, 255, 255, 0.5))

  • RGB/RGBA strings (e.g. "rgb(255, 255, 255)", "rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.5)")

  • HSL strings (e.g. "hsl(270, 60%, 70%)", "hsl(270, 60%, 70%, .5)")

Color has the following methods:

original

the original string or tuple passed to Color

as_named

returns a named CSS3 color; fails if the alpha channel is set or no such color exists unless

fallback=True is supplied, in which case it falls back to as_hex

as_hex

returns a string in the format #fff or #ffffff; will contain 4 (or 8) hex values if the alpha channel is set,

e.g. #7f33cc26

as_rgb

returns a string in the format rgb(<red>, <green>, <blue>), or rgba(<red>, <green>, <blue>, <alpha>)

if the alpha channel is set

as_rgb_tuple

returns a 3- or 4-tuple in RGB(a) format. The alpha keyword argument can be used to define whether the alpha channel should be included; options: True - always include, False - never include, None (default) - include if set

as_hsl

string in the format hsl(<hue deg>, <saturation %>, <lightness %>)

or hsl(<hue deg>, <saturation %>, <lightness %>, <alpha>) if the alpha channel is set

as_hsl_tuple

returns a 3- or 4-tuple in HSL(a) format. The alpha keyword argument can be used to define whether the alpha channel should be included; options: True - always include, False - never include, None (the default) - include if set

The __str__ method for Color returns self.as_named(fallback=True).

Note

the as_hsl* refer to hue, saturation, lightness "HSL" as used in html and most of the world, not "HLS" as used in python's colorsys.

7.4.6. Secret Types

You can use the SecretStr and the SecretBytes data types for storing sensitive information that you do not want to be visible in logging or tracebacks. SecretStr and SecretBytes can be initialized idempotently or by using str or bytes literals respectively. The SecretStr and SecretBytes will be formatted as either '**********' or '' on conversion to json.

7.4.7. Json Type

You can use Json data type to make pydantic first load a raw JSON string. It can also optionally be used to parse the loaded object into another type base on the type Json is parameterised with:

7.4.8. Payment Card Numbers

The PaymentCardNumber type validates payment cards (such as a debit or credit card).

PaymentCardBrand can be one of the following based on the BIN:

  • PaymentCardBrand.amex

  • PaymentCardBrand.mastercard

  • PaymentCardBrand.visa

  • PaymentCardBrand.other

The actual validation verifies the card number is:

  • a str of only digits

  • luhn valid

  • the correct length based on the BIN, if Amex, Mastercard or Visa, and between 12 and 19 digits for all other brands

7.4.9. Strict Types

You can use the StrictStr, StrictBytes, StrictInt, StrictFloat, and StrictBool types to prevent coercion from compatible types. These types will only pass validation when the validated value is of the respective type or is a subtype of that type. This behavior is also exposed via the strict field of the ConstrainedStr, ConstrainedBytes, ConstrainedFloat and ConstrainedInt classes and can be combined with a multitude of complex validation rules.

The following caveats apply:

  • StrictBytes (and the strict option of ConstrainedBytes) will accept both bytes, and bytearray types.

  • StrictInt (and the strict option of ConstrainedInt) will not accept bool types, even though bool is a subclass of int in Python. Other subclasses will work.

  • StrictFloat (and the strict option of ConstrainedFloat) will not accept int.

7.4.10. ByteSize

You can use the ByteSize data type to convert byte string representation to raw bytes and print out human readable versions of the bytes as well.

Note that 1b will be parsed as "1 byte" and not "1 bit".

7.4.11. Custom Data Types

You can also define your own custom data types. There are several ways to achieve it.

7.4.12. Classes with _get_validators__

You use a custom class with a classmethod _get_validators__. It will be called to get validators to parse and validate the input data.

These validators have the same semantics as in `Validators`_, you can declare a parameter config, field, etc.

Similar validation could be achieved using `constr(regex=...) <#constrained-types>`_ except the value won't be formatted with a space, the schema would just include the full pattern and the returned value would be a vanilla string.

See `schema`_ for more details on how the model's schema is generated.

7.4.13. Arbitrary Types Allowed

You can allow arbitrary types using the arbitrary_types_allowed config in the `Model Config`_.